# Electrical Engineering

The Electrical Engineering department offers EE majors an optional concentration in semiconductors and nanotechnology:

## Required courses

- EE 30357: Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices
- EE 40446: Integrated Circuit Fabrication

## Restricted electives (minimum two from list)

- EE 30358: Waveguides and Antennas
- EE 60587: Quantum Mechanics for Electrical Engineers
- EE 40447: Alternative Energy Devices and Materials
- EE 40476: Electronic Photonics of Materials
- CBE 40477: Nanoscience and Technology
- EE 40478: Intro to Quantum Computing

Descriptions for the courses included in the semiconductor and nanotechnology concentration are listed below, along with many other EE courses that include at least some content designed to increase student understanding of nanotechnology.

### EE 30347 Fundamentals of Semiconductors

(3-0-3) Key: (lecture hours-lab hours-credit hours)

Corequisite: EE 32347

An introduction to solid-state electronic devices, presenting the basis of semiconductor materials, conduction processes in solids, and other physical phenomena fundamental to the understanding of transistors, optoelectronic devices, and silicon integrated circuit technology.

### EE 30357 Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices

(3-0-3)

Prerequisite: EE 30347

Corequisite: EE 32357

Applications of transport phenomena in semiconductors to explain the terminal behavior of a variety of modern electronic devices such as bipolar junction transistors, MOS structures, and field effect transistors.

### EE 30358 Waveguides and Antennas

(3-0-3)

Prerequisite: EE 30348 or EE 34348

Propagation of traveling waves along transmission lines: transient waves, steady-state sinusoidal time and space variations. Wave equations for unbounded media and in wave guides.

### EE 40432 Introduction to Systems Biology

(4-0-4)

Prerequisite: CHEM 10122 and MATH 20580

The goal of this course is to highlight elementary design principles of biological systems. Many of the underlying principles that govern the biochemical interactions within a cell can be related to networks consisting of basic building-block circuits with multiple inputs/output, feedback and feedforward etc. This course draws on control theory and simple biology to provide a mathematical framework to understand these biological networks. The course is intended for advanced undergraduates or graduate students.

### EE 40446 IC Fabrication

(2-6-4)

Corequisite: EE 41446

This course introduces the student to the principles of integrated circuit fabrication. Photolithography, impurity deposition and redistribution, metal deposition and definition, and other topics. Students will fabricate a 5000 transistor CMOS LSI circuit.

### EE 40447 Alternative Energy Devices and Materials

(3-0-3)

Prerequisite: PHYS 20330

This course is for upper level undergraduates and early graduate students interested in the scientific challenges of alternative energy generation, storage, and efficient use. The course will cover photovoltaic and solar power in depth, with additional coverage of fuel cells, hydrogen, energy storage, wind power, modern nuclear power, thermoelectrics, geothermal, and more. Upon completion of this course, students should be able to analyze important devices and predict the power output under various conditions, compare their strengths and weaknesses, plan a sustainable power grid, and describe the technical, economic, and political challenges to making each of these alternative energies successful.

### EE 40448 Electrical Energy Extraction

(3-0-3)

This course will teach the physics and engineering of devices that convert Lorentz or Newtonian forces into electromagnetic waves or electrical charge. Students will improve their understanding of the laws of electromagnetism and physical principles behind generators, solar cells, and a myriad of new devices under development to extract energy from electromagnetic waves, heat, vibrations and human activity. This course aims to provide a quantitative understanding of the efficiency of these devices and the limitations imposed by nature on energy extraction. Electromagnetic laws, materials physics, and circuit theory will be introduced to enable the analysis and design of these devices, toward a complete description of the conversion of forces to charges and current.

### EE 40476 Electronic Photonics of Materials

(3-0-3)

Prerequisites: EE 30347 or EE 34347

Principles of materials science applied to materials issues in fabrication, operation and reliability of electronic and optoelectronic devices.

### EE 40478 Introduction to Quantum Computing

(3-0-3)

Prerequisites: MATH 20580 or MATH 20610

This course will introduce the matrix form of quantum mechanics and discuss the concepts underlying the theory of quantum information. Some of the important algorithms will be discussed, as well as physical systems that have been suggested for quantum computing.

### EE 60556 Fundamentals of Semiconductor Physics

(3-0-3)

Treatment of the basic principles of solids. Topics include periodic structures, lattice waves, electron states, static and dynamic properties of solids, electron-electron interaction transport, and optical properties.

### EE 60566 Solid-State Devices

(3-0-3)

In-depth analysis of electronic devices with an emphasis on both homojunction and heterojunction devices. Operation of p-n junctions is analyzed, along with BJTs, MOSFETs, and heterojunction devices such as HBTs and MODFETs.

### EE 60576 Microelectronic Materials

(3-0-3)

Principles of materials science applied to materials issues in fabrication, operation, and reliability of microelectronic devices.

### EE 60587 Quantum Mechanics for Electrical Engineers

(3-0-3)

The course focuses on those aspects of quantum theory that are of particular relevance to electrical engineering. It is intended to give seniors and first-year graduate students a working knowledge of quantum mechanics at a level sufficient to illuminate the operation of standard and advanced quantum devices. Topics include classical mechanics versus quantum mechanics, early quantum theory, Schrödinger formulation, time-dependent and time-independent Schrödinger equation, Dirac formulation, Bloch theorem, magnetic effects, open quantum systems, and density matrices.

### EE 60598 Semiconductor Microlithography

(3-0-3)

Lithography is the patterning technique used in the fabrication of semiconductor integrated circuits. Advances in lithography over the last two decades have fueled the explosive growth of the microelectronics industry. In fact, future advances in microelectronics are being gated by advances in lithography. This course will cover the basic theory and technology of today's state-of-the-art in semiconductor lithography.

### EE 60632 Introduction to Systems Biology

(3-4)

Prerequisite: Chem 10122 and Math 20580

The goal of this course is to highlight elementary design principles of biological systems. Many of the underlying principles that govern the biochemical interactions within a cell can be related to networks consisting of basic building-block circuits with multiple inputs/output, feedback and feedforward etc. This course draws on control theory and simple biology to provide a mathematical framework to understand these biological networks. The course is intended for advanced undergraduates or graduate students.

### EE 60647 Alternative Energy Devices and Materials

(3-0-3)

This course is for upper level undergraduates and early graduate students interested in the scientific challenges of alternative energy generation, storage, and efficient use. The course will cover photovoltaic and solar power in depth, with additional coverage of fuel cells, hydrogen, energy storage, wind power, modern nuclear power, thermoelectrics, geothermal, and more. Upon completion of this course, students should be able to analyze important devices and predict the power output under various conditions, compare their strengths and weaknesses, plan a sustainable power grid, and describe the technical, economic, and political challenges to making each of these alternative energies successful.

### EE 60672 Vacuum and SEM Technology

(3-0-3)

This course will provide the students with a solid background in electron beams, particularly scanning electron microscopy, and use that to address electron beam lithography technology. An introduction to vacuum systems will be provided. Other topics include focused ion beams and scanning probe techniques.

### EE 63502 Solid State Seminar

(1-0-1)

This course consists of lectures by faculty, senior graduate students, and visiting lecturers covering a broad range of topics in electronic materials, devices and circuits. Students read papers in preparation for the weekly talks and are given a comprehensive examination.

### EE 67010 Instrumentation for Nanoelectronics

(3-0-3)

This lab course is intended to give students hands-on practice on measurements and applications of nanoelectronics devices combined with development and implementation of interfacing instrumentation. Single-Electron and Nanomagnetic devices are the primary subjects of the course.

### EE 67014 Epitaxial Nanostructures

(3-0-3)

The class will cover advanced topics on epitaxial growth of semiconductor nanostructures, transport, device physics and technology. The class will comprise of finding, reading, and analysis of research papers, writing reports, discussions, and oral presentations. Students will be required to think independently, come up with new ideas, and work under the instructor's guidance with the intention of publishing their work.

### EE 67017 SEM and Nanofabrication

(1-0-1)

A short introduction to fundamentals of scanning electron microscopy and electron beam lithography. SEM fundamentals will be used to illustrate issues in nanofabrication by EBL.

### EE 67018 Advanced Nanolithography

(1-0-1)

A short introduction to the wide array of technologies used for performing lithography below 0.1 micron.

### EE 67020 Wide Bandgap Semiconductors

(3-0-3)

This course will discuss the development of wide bandgap semiconductors, including III-V Nitrides, II-VI semiconductors, SiC and diamond. Growth, material properties, device physics and technology will be addressed. The class will consist of reading and analysis of research papers, writing reports, discussions, and oral presentations. Students will be required to think independently, come up with new ideas, and work under the instructor's guidance with the intention of publishing their work.

### EE 67026 Energy-Constrained Devices and Circuits

(1-0-1)

In this one credit course, students will study selected pioneering papers in semiconductors, chosen to provide a greater understanding of the origins, issues, and limits in current device and circuit technology, and seed new device thinking. We will begin with foundational papers on the invention of the MOSFET, the DRAM, and the current-mode sense amplifier, and the study the performance limits of the MOSFETs. As the semester proceeds, class discussion will seed the selection of further topics to deepen our understanding of energy constraints in devices and circuits.

### EE 67030 Research Perspectives in Electronic Materials and Devices

(1-0-1)

This seminar course introduces first-year graduate students to Notre Dame research in Electronic Materials and Devices. Students will select research advisors and rotate through 3 research groups during the semester. In these rotations, the student will attend group meetings, meet and work with senior graduate students, and participate in the research life of the department. After the rotation experience, the student will submit a rank order list of their preferred research advisor and submit it for placement with a permanent research advisor in their area of interest.

### EE 67032 Physics of Computation

(3-0-3)

Every computational process, no matter how abstract, ultimately is realized by a physical process. An interesting question therefore is in what ways basic physical laws impact computation. This course will survey the literature on this topic with particular attention on the question of ultimate limits on the energy requirements for computation.

### EE 67035 Nanomagnetics

(1-0-1)

This course will serve as an introduction to the field of nanomagnetics, starting with an overview of the basic physical phenomena of magnetism, and leading up to a survey of applications of these phenomena in magnetic devices used for information storage and data processing.

### EE 80603 Transmission Electron Microscopy

(4-0-4)

Introduction to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) applied to metals, ceramics and semiconductors. TEM optics, electron diffraction, image formation modes and mechanisms, specimen preparation and practical TEM operation, and analyical techniques for chemical analysis.

### EE 80656 Adv. Semiconductor Physics

(3-0-3)

The class will provide graduate students with a solid understanding of the basic underlying physics of semiconductors that lead to practical applications. Starting from electronic bandstructure, the course will cover topics such as electron-phonon interactions, charge scattering and transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. The effects of quantum confinement in modern nanoscale electronic and optical devices will be covered in detail. The course is geared to be a bridge between physics and engineering; much of the physical concepts covered will be shown to be the basis of practical semiconductor devices currently in commercial production. The students will be required to choose a topic of research early in the class and make presentations and write term papers. The students will be evaluated through their assignment solutions, reports, and presentations.

### EE 80660 Optical Characterization of Nanostructures

(3-0-3)

This course treats the optical characterization techniques that are employed to investigate the physical properties of modern semiconducting materials. A brief overview will first be given of the basic science and growth of these materials, and the theory for their optical characterization. A detailed description will then be provided of measurement techniques such as reflectance and modulation spectroscopy, photoluminescense, time-resolved spectroscopy, infrared absorption, Raman and Brillouin scattering. These fundamentals will be illustrated by examples in current semiconductor research and technology. Optical processes in semiconductors like inter and intra-band absorption, impurity effects, electro-optical and polarization effects, exceptions and theory dynamics will be addressed. Emphasis will be given to the use of these techniques to investigate low dimensional nanostructures such as quantum wells, wires, and dots.

### EE 80666 Advanced Electronic Devices

(3-0-3)

This course provides in-depth coverage of electronic devices, ranging from conventional to innovative devices. Topics include MOSFETs, resonant tunnel diodes, single-electron devices, power devices, and hetrojunction devices. Particular attention is paid to recent development in device research.

### EE 81603 Transmission Electron Microscopy Laboratory

(0)

This course is a laboratory co-requisite for EE60606. TEM operational procedures, including alignment, astigmatism correction, bright-field, dark field, weak-beam and lattice imaging, photography and interpretation of images and diffractional patterns. TEM specimen preparation procedures, including jet electropolishing of metals, preparation of semiconductors and ceramics by dimple grinding and ion milling as well as by wedge polishing.

### EE 87006 High Speed Devices

(3-0-3)

This course consists of a series of lectures where the fundamental properties of high-speed devices are presented and discussed. In addition, each student has to present a student paper related to one selected device. The paper should present the device, design, the principle of operation, typical figures of merit and possible advantages and drawbacks.

### EE 87012 Advanced Electron Devices

(3-0-3)

In-depth coverage of electronic devices, ranging from conventional devices to innovative devices. Topics include MOSFET's resonant tunnel diodes, single electron devices, power devices, and hetrojunction devices. Particular attention is paid to recent developments in device research.

### EE 87018 Uncooled Infrared Detectors: Science and Technology

(3-0-3)

This course will explore the literature on uncooled infrared (IR) detectors, and will cover the underlying basic science and applications. In particular, this course will study the recent literature on nanoantenna IR detectors.

### EE 87024 Wide Bandgap Device Physics

(3-0-3)

The class will cover the physics and device applications of wide-bandgap semiconductors and their heterostructures (primarily III-V Nitrides, and SiC). The topics to be discussed are: Physics of bandstructure Origin of electronic polarization spontaneous and piezoelectric Charge scattering and transport Optical properties of bulk and quantum heterostructures Implications of polarization on band diagrams, transport and optical properties Wide bandgap devices: Field Effect Transistors, Light Emitting Diodes, and LASERS Polarization-engineering in wide-bandgap electronic and optical devices.

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